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Showing posts from January, 2020

Soil and its types

Soil is formed due to weathering of rocks either physically or chemically. Physical agencies like running water, wind, ice, gravity etc And chemical agencies like oxidation, reduction and carbonation. Residual soil :- if the weathered rock material is retained over parent rock it is termed as residual soil. Note :- The process of formation of soil is known as Pedogenesis Types of soil 1. Alluvial soil It is the soil which is being deposited from the suspension in running water It is mainly found along the bank of river Transported soil (running water) Physical weathering 2. Lacustrine soil It is the soil which is deposited from the suspension in fresh water still water of the lake. Residual soil (water) Physical weathering 3. Marine soil It is the soil which is deposited from the suspension in sea water Transported soil Physical weathering ( flowing water ) 4. Aeolian soil It is the soil which is formed due to transpor


Rocks are classified into three types: Geological Chemical Physical Geological classification   These are of three types: Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks Igneous rocks Inside portion of earth surface has high temperature so as to cause fusion by heat at even ordinary pressure. Molten or partially rocky  material is known as magma Magma occasionally tries to come out to the Earth's surface through cracks or weak portions. Rocks formed by cooling of magma are known as the igneous rocks. Igneous is also divided into three types: (a) Plutonic rocks : these are formed due to cooling of magma at considerable depth from Earth's surface. The cooling is low and rocks posses coarsely grained crystalline structure. e.g:- granite  (b) Hypabyssal rocks:   These are formed due to cooling of magma at a relatively shallow depth from the Earth's surface. The cooling is quick Posses finely grained crystalline structure. e.g. Dolerite  (c


A coloured liquid that is put on a surface to protect  or decorate it. Object of painting a surface: It protects the surface from weathering effect of atmosphere and actions by other liquid and gases. Prevent decay of wood or corrosion in metal. It is used to give good appearance to the surface It makes the surface becomes hygienically good, clean, colourful and attractive. It provide a smooth surface for easy cleaning. Characteristics of an ideal paint:  Paint should be cheap and economical. It can be easily and freely applied on the surface. Paint should dries in reasonable time and not too rapidly. Paint should cover maximum area of surface with minimum quantity of the paint. Paint should be such that its colour is maintained for long time and hard Andrew durable surface. It should not affect the health of workers during its application. When applied on the surface, paint should form a thin layer/film of uniform nature. Paint should posses attractive and ple

Plane table surveying

Definition :- It  is a method of surveying in which the field observations and plotting are done simultaneously. It is a simple and cheaper method It is suitable for small scale maps Instrument/accessories used :- Plane table :- It is generally rectangular in shape having size 75 cm x 60 cm Tripod stand :- It is provided with 3 foot screws at its top for levelling of plane table. Alidade :- It is used for establishing a line of sight. It is of two types : 1. Simple alidade 2. Telescopic alidade Trough compass :- This compass is required  for drawing the line showing thr magnetic declination on the paper. Spirit level :- It is used for the levelling of plane table. U-fork with plumb bob :- It is used for centering of table over the point or station. In the beginning, it is used for transferring the ground point on the sheet. Drawing paper Pins Drawing accessories Principle of plane table surveying :- " All the rays drawn through

Dams and their types & classification

Dam is a barrier that controls the flow of streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only beat down floods but also provides water for various purposes such as Industrial use Human consumption Irrigation purposes Aquaculture Components of dam Crest :- Crest is provided to roadway/walkway over the dam. Parapet wall :- These are the low height walls provided on both sides of the crest for the purpose of protection. Spillway :- These are made for the purpose of releasing excess/surplus water from the reservoir. Free board :- It is the distance between the maximum water level (MWL) and normal water level (NWL). Gallery :- This is the passage tunnel provided inside the dam for the purpose of inspection, to provide access to mechanical equipments. Sluiceway :- These are provided to clear the silt or sand accumulated in the reservoir. Heel :- It is the lowest portion of the dam in contact with the ground at upstream of dam. Toe :- It is the lowest portion of the d

Top 5 amazing constructions in world

TOP 5 Amazing construction in the world Regatta hotel - Indonesia This tower is a hotel building which is  163 metres tall and having floors                       40 floors X 1                       24 floors X 10 Construction of this building was started in 2009. It is located in Jakarta, Indonesia.      2. Burj khalifa - UAE Burj khalifa located in Dubai, UAE. Height of this building is 828 metres and it includes more than 160 stories. Burj khalifa holds many records like tallest building in the world tallest free-standing structure in the world highest number of stories in the world highest occupied floor in the world (309,473 sq ft) highest outdoor observation deck in the world elevator with the longest travel distance in the world (504m) tallest service elevator in the world    3.  Hotel Abraj kudai - Saudi Arabia     Abraj kudai    is the largest hotel in the world located in the mecca, Saudi arabia. It consists ring of 12 towe

Super elevation and their designing

Super elevation is the transverse slope provided to counteract the effect of centrifugal force acted on the vehicle.It is provided by raising the outer edge of the road with respect to inner edge. It is provided to avoid the overturning of vehicle and to prevent it from skid laterally outwards. It is represented or denoted by "e". Advantages of superelevation It allows running of vehicle at high speed on curved path as on a straight path without any danger of overturning. It helps to keep the vehicles to their proper side on the pavement and thus prevents collision of vehicles. It provides drainage of the whole width of road towards the inner side. Expression for super elevation                                                e + f = v²/gR  here, e = super elevation           f = frictional factor           v = velocity in m/s           R = radius           g = acceleration due to gravity  The maximum value of frictional factor (f) is 0.15 The maxim

Transition curve

Transition curve  is a horizontal curve in a plan provided to allow transition from a straight alignment to a circular curve gradually. Or in easy language,  it is a curve which connects with a infinite radius and radius R. Theseare usually provided between a straight and curved track/roads. Objective and purposes :- To gradually decrease the radius from infinite to 'R'. To gradually introduce centrifugal force. To gradually introduce super elevation. It also reduces the effect of sudden jerk on passengers due to the effect of centrifugal force induced on vehicles at curves. To enhance riding conditions. To improves aesthetic of alignment. Types of curves:- Spiral Lemniscate Cubic parabola 1. Spiral curves IRC (INDIAN ROAD CONGRESS) recommends spiral curve because the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration is constant. Length of transition curves On the basis of rate of change of centrifugal acceleration. length of curve = V³/C.R here, V = veloc

Green buildings

Green building is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation Features of green buildings:- Efficient use of energy, water and other resources Use of renewable energy, such as solar energy Pollution and waste reduction measures, and the enabling of re-use and recycling Good indoor environmental air quality Use of materials that are non-toxic,

Riveted connections in structure

The ultimate aim of connection design is to produce a joint that it is simple, compatible, feasible, easy to fabricate and is safe and economical. Connections are weakest link in the structure. These are obsolete ( no longer useful because something better has been invent Design and analysis of riveted connections is similar to bolted connections. Rivet is made of ductile steel [ ductile or high steel ]. Types of rivet head (a)   Snap head (b) Pan head (c) Flat countersunk head (d) Round countersunk head S Snapand pan heads form projection beyond plate face. Rivet length = Grip + length required to from 2nd head.  d= nominal diameter of rivet               D  = Gross diameter of rivet When grip of rivet becomes long, rivet is also subjected to bending in addition to bearing and shearing stresses. Riveting can be done in two ways  (a) Hot driven riveting  (b) Cold driven riveting Hot driven riveting Hot rivets becomes plastic and expands due to which

Deflection of beams

The transverse deflection of beam of  beam is caused by Shear force Bending moment The ratio of bending deflection to shar deflection is proportional to (l/d)² where, l = span of beam             d = depth of beam                (l/d)² >> 1 that means bending deflection is always greater than shear deflection. Hence for all practical purposes shear deflection may be neglected. "Slope and deflection are inversely proportional to flexural rigidity" EJ = Flexural rigidity EJ/L = Flexural stiffness AE = Arial rigidity AE/L = Axial stiffness Cantilever with concentrated load at free end  deflection and slope at point A is ZERO     deflection at point B = PL³/3EJ     slope at point B = PL²/2EJ 2. Cantilever with moment at the end deflection at point B = ML²/2EJ Slope at point B = ML/EJ 3.  Cantilever with uniform distributed load defection at point B =  ωL 4 / 8EJ   slope at point B =  ωL ³/6EJ 4. Simply supported

Pressure vessels and analysis of their stresses and strains

Pressure vessel is defined as a closed container designed contains fluids (gases or liquids) at a pressure substantially different from atmospheric pressure. Due to internal fluid pressure, three types of pressure may develop: Hoop's stresses / circumferential stress / meridional stress Longitudional stresses  Radial stresses (1) Hoop's stress: This is normal stresses which act in the direction of circumference. Due to internal fluid pressure, these are compressive. In thin pressure vessels, these are assumed to be uniform across thickness whereas in thick pressure they vary from maximum of inner surface to minimum at outer surface. They are responsible for change in diameter. (2)  Longitudional stresses: These are normal stresses which are responsible for change in length. If ends of cylindrical pressure vessels are closed then longitudional stresses will be developed and if they are open the longitudional stress will be zero. Due to the internal fluid